Sunday, September 25, 2016

Satyajit Ray - The Inner Eye: By Andrew Robinson

"Ray is a rich and multifarious person in an age of impoverished specialization" Andrew Robinson couldn’t have said it better. Sudhir Raikar recalls his biographic epic "Inner eye"; unarguably the most sensitive and selfless work on the life, times and films of Satyajit Ray.


Legendary English writer Samuel Johnson remarked in the context of a biography: "It is rarely well executed. They only who live with a man can write his life with any genuine exactness and discrimination; and few people who have lived with a man know what to remark about him." Samuel Johnson would have been proud of his namesake Andrew Robinson whose ‘Inner eye’ is much more than a well-executed biography of Ray, who, in the words of another namesake and Chaplin biographer David Robinson, is undoubtedly ‘one of the world’s great artists, not just for the cinema.’

From the earliest memory of watching Ray’s ghost story ‘Lost Jewels’ on BBC TV as a ten-year old, Andrew’s fascination for Ray remained admittedly vague even during his Oxford film school days as also his brief India stint. It was the rare viewing experience at the 1977 world premiere of the Ray period saga ‘The Chess Players’ which drew Andrew to Ray in a manner that now seems providential in hindsight. In Robinson’s words "The warmth and urbane humour of the film, coupled with its unobtrusively innovative style, suggested that its creator must be a highly civilized individual; and its intriguing range of references showed him to be equally at home in both East and West."

Andrew’s unique relationship with the master filmmaker probably gained momentum with Ray’s congenial typewritten reply to his faltering fan letter that enquired whether Ray had ever considered writing his autobiography. The fact that Andrew had landed a job with a publishing house seemed merely incidental to his proposition. The real motivation must have been the stirring realization of Ray’s inimitable self-effacement found in the pages of the book "Portrait of a director: Satyajit Ray" by Marie Seton, Ray’s first biographer. "Without exchanging a word with Ray, I had begun to feel I already knew him." Andrew endorses the sentiment of those Ray admirers who have known him solely though his own writings.

From the first reply to the last interaction, Robinson found Ray ‘frank and informal’, a clear reflection of their special bond more than Ray’s characteristic inaccessibility and humility. As a result, we now know through Robinson about many unusual and amusing aspects of Ray’s persona including his addiction to one-armed bandits and his obsession with casino slot machines. Even in the widely known traits of Ray, Robinson’s account is strikingly value-added. "He’s willing to talk to anyone at any level but finds it difficult to tolerate insincerity, insensitivity or stupidity in a person or artistic production for very long." This, as Robinson contends, makes Ray seem remote or aloof to most but the reality is diametrically opposite. "I have yet to meet anyone with a genuine feeling for a subject that interests Ray who did not enjoy talking to him about it – whether it was cinema, music, painting, literature, a new scientific theory, cricket, the fast-changing face of Calcutta, someone he admires, or any host of things, often quite unexpected.". Above all things, Robinson consistently accentuates one of Ray’s most appealing qualities, his phenomenal sense of humour that remained intact till the very last, even in the slurred, bed-ridden 1992 acceptance speech following the honorary Oscar, only three weeks prior to breathing his last. "No one who knows Ray well would ever call him solemn; he is the inheritor of a long family tradition of making Bengalis laugh." Robinson observes.

The 400+ pages of ‘Inner eye’ begins with a thoughtful note on the Bengali pronunciation and spellings, a linguistic challenge that Robinson himself surpassed with flying colours following Ray’s implicit but qualified consent to his biography "I don’t want another foreigner writing a book about me without learning Bengali."

After an unflappably precise introduction narrating the history, geography and gravity of his personal tryst with Ray followed by a detailed account of Ray’s incredible grandfather-father duo of Upendra Kishore and Sukumar, he judiciously sketches the paternal and maternal characters of the Ray family, highlighting the chronicles of the influential ones in particular, astutely handpicked from Ray’s memoir ‘Jakhan Choto Chilam’ (When I was small). From his school and college years to the legendary Santiniketan stint and the interaction with Tagore, we trace Ray’s evolving thought patterns and pre-occupations that briefly culminated in commercial art with British ad agency D J Keymer before he switched over to independent film making. Here, Robinson unfolds Ray’s dignified authority as a profound film critic which was indicative of his holistic approach to cinema, also a great primer on the art and science of review writing.

There couldn’t have been a better description of Ray than Andrew’s. "Ray is a rich and multifarious person in an age of impoverished specialization". Robinson cites "a cynical materialism masquerading as liberation" as the prime reason for the ridiculous inference that Ray is now hopelessly outdated. Indians don’t merely share the Western indifference to Bengali and Indian culture as he’s observed; a good number of them even treasure this apathy as an emblem of progression, partly explaining their insatiable appetite for and unqualified appreciation of even the most inane Hollywood films. On the other end is a vast majority given to sentimental worship and sloganeering who are still being cinematically spoon fed by popular cinema ‘reducing them to a state of unredeemable vacuity’ as the master had impeccably observed way back in the 80s.

The chapter ‘Unmade Films’ is a valiantly informative account, one of the few outspoken records of the various unfortunate events that led to Ray’s failure to film E M Forster’s ‘A Passage to India’ and ‘The Alien’ based on his own script. It’s prudent to note the dubious (and hence indignant) claim of star director Steven Spielberg who remarked when quizzed about the striking familiarities between ‘E T’ and ‘The Alien’. "Tell Satyajit I was a kid in high school when his script was circulating in Hollywood" Robinson poignantly underlines Ray’s quiet dignity with which he overlooked such shady dealings around him including the infamous parliamentary debate in which ‘Mother India’ MP Nargis Dutt accused Ray of distorting India’s image abroad in rather unparliamentary fashion. Even though his supporters including the maverick Utpal Dutt immediately came forward to defend him, he went about his quiet affairs unperturbed, guided by his own maxim "The right people will continue to do the right things"

‘Ray as Designer, Illustrator and Writer’ tells us about his awesome proficiency in typography, calligraphy and illustrations as also his endearing vignettes and short stories including ‘Patol Babu, Film Star’ which we recently saw in adapted form – as Dibakar Banerjee’s film starring Nawazuddin Siddiqui in the commemorative ‘Bombay Talkies’ (with due credit to Ray’s script, we hope) ‘Some aspect of his craft’ beautifully highlights Ray’s holistic approach, a great companion reference complementing Ray’s own thoughts penned in "Our films, Their Films".

Robinson’s critique of Ray’s films (as also his character sketch of the great man) is wonderfully sensitive, carefully excavating the underlying insights and analytically underlining the vulnerable links. Unlike most critics – revered and otherwise – he has no qualms either to revisit his earlier perceptions about certain Ray films or point out facts like Ray’s susceptibility in scientific matters that often showed in his films. After a preface on the making of Pather Panchali, Robinson offers detailed notes on Ray’s body of work – from the inaugural ‘Apu Trilogy’ to ‘Agantuk’, Ray’s last film. Robinson’s smart classification of Ray’s common genre films under suitable heads like comedies, musicals, detective films and documentaries and the all-inclusive bibliography at the end help novice Ray viewers explode two popular myths: one, Ray should be best known for his Apu Trilogy and two, Ray films are only about the grim and grave matters of life. Robinson’s examination of most films is undeniably comprehensive including notes on Ray’s methodical research and preparation. In the process, he unearths such intricate aspects which are hardly ever discussed even in film circles. Andrew’s book is unquestionably a great handbook for our high and mighty critics aptly described by Ray as "anyone with access to print" (and now web and electronic media as well)

Having said that, it was disappointing to find no mention of versatile singer Kishore Kumar (and his wonderful chemistry with Ray) in Robinson’s comprehensive notes on ‘Charulata’ and ‘Ghare Bhaire’, ditto for Amitabh Bachchan’s voice over in ‘The Chess Players’. Also, Robinson’s take on Ray’s ‘Nayak’, we are afraid, seems more punitive than persuasive in its argument. As he’s rightly noted, ‘Nayak’ was certainly not among Ray’s best but the phenomenal performances of support players, notably Mukunda Lahiri (Bireswar Sen), Somen Bose (Sankarda), Premangshu Bose (Biresh), Pritish Sarkar (Kamu Mukherjee) and Nirmal Ghosh (Jyoti) deserved special mention. Most important, Uttam Kumar’s act is true to life if you compare it with Soumitra Chatterjee’s taxi driver in ‘Abhijan’. Here, Ray clearly banked on Kumar’s established stardom more than his lack of ‘Burton-like real star qualities’ that Robinson points out. For the Bengali audience in particular, he was very much a ‘modern Krishna with a flute’. As far as his acting is concerned, there are umpteen scenes which more than attest his credence like the one in which union leader Biresh gate crashes at Kumar’s place seeking a favour just when Kumar is giving measurements for one of his film costumes. Uttam’s interpretation is a case study in effortless acting, especially the way he makes room for Biresh by politely dispersing the crowd packed with diverse requests, exactly like a well-meaning busy star would in similar circumstances. In fact, in our reckoning, it’s Ray’s ‘Seemabaddha’ that needs careful examination under the microscope. The concluding scene of this film appears rather theatrical by Ray’s high standards: the way the protagonist and his sister-in-law accentuate their contrasting gestures to underscore the central message and the manner in which the ‘wristwatch’ motif has been force fitted for poignant appeal. Given that Ray was a master in accurately estimating the intrinsic range of emotions of his chosen characters, the sister in law’s morality seems rather bewildering, not exactly in line with her screen sensibilities and circumstances. But that’s only a subjective argument, nothing right or wrong about it. And it does not take away even an ounce from Robinson’s sincere and studied effort.

Many people often talk of a pronounced shift in Ray’s fag end work, away from the subtle lyricism of his earlier work towards stark prose and absolute clarity as they call it. For one, prose and poetry in a Ray film is not chalk and cheese for anybody to discern them in absolute terms. Secondly, even if Ray did eventually move to stark reality as they claim, that’s absolutely fine as an observation as Robinson puts it. But some of our distinguished friends try and read more. They hint at a possible dilution or even deterioration in this shift. That’s absolutely uncalled for. It’s obvious that Ray’s failing health would have a taken a toll on his cinema of later years. That the green signal to indoor shoots came under strict medical supervision would have naturally affected his filmmaking in some way or the other. Even to the public eye, his exhaustion is glaringly evident in the 1989 Pierre-Andre Boutang interview in which he appears extremely frail, slightly crestfallen and noticeably resigned, clearly a direct consequence of an ailment-driven ageing that robbed him of his characteristic upright demeanour. In fact, we should be happy that Ray didn’t put a full stop to his filmmaking voyage even during these trying circumstances.

The fact is many people including some of his best known peers can’t accept the fact that Ray’s towering profundity and hovering versatility could go neck-deep in all areas of filmmaking (Richard Attenborough splendidly described it in his TV interview during the making of ‘The Chess Players’). Besides, he was a gifted painter, writer, designer, illustrator and composer with an impressive body of work spanning disparate worlds - from children’s literature to adult fiction, from composing music to creating fonts. To top it all, he was a simple man with an austere lifestyle by film fraternity standards. His marked aversion to public platforms obviously offered no scope whatsoever for weaving juicy news bytes linked with his name. For the ‘impoverished specialists’ among our filmmakers, filmgoers, experts and enthusiasts, Ray continues to be a formidable challenge. Precisely why they invariably fall short of the commensurate effort to delve deeper into the subtleties of Ray’s consummate work which calls for, as Robinson recommends, "a wide understanding of world cinema, Western and Indian classical music, informed appreciation of the language, literature, music, art, religions and the cultural confluence of India among other things." Phew, that’s quite an effort.

It’s far easier to capture Ray in clichéd adjectives like "Classical" (whatever that means) or simply masquerade as Ray converts to appear intellectual. There’s a vast army of Ray colleagues who deem the hypocorism ‘Manikda’ to be a necessary and sufficient evidence of their Ray authority. And then we have a few adventurists who claim absolute knowledge of Ray’s limitations in obviously obscure terms. Like those who claim that Ray was not original and hence was lured by literary revisions. Why don’t they take a closer look at the quality of his adaptations instead? How many directors worldwide are capable of such magical insertions as the madman in Tagore’s ‘Post master’ or the boy Kallu in Premchand’s ‘Shatranj ke Khilari’. Both were born out of a purely cinematic need that Ray instinctively felt integral to take the story forward on screen. That’s originality at its sublime best.

It’s no surprise then that Ray’s followers commend him and his detractors condemn him invariably for the wrong reasons. Even in the occasional discord over beliefs and principles, the stance against Ray invariably stands on shaky ground. A case in point can be drawn from Robinson’s book although the author has refrained from expressing his own thoughts on the matter. One of Ray’s leading ladies voiced her dissent in response to Ray’s perceptible hint of a possible conflict that an unfaithful Indian wife could face as a mother, as depicted in the short film ‘Pikoo’, one that would make her forcibly insensitive to the child’s demands. Our esteemed actress-turned-director has sorely missed Ray’s subtle point in her perfunctory clarion call of feminism. She would rather do well to introspect on the prime reason why she looks unconvincing in her non-Ray films, like some other Ray regulars who later made a glamorous living in mainstream Hindi cinema that offered stardom on a platter. They owe it solely to Ray’s Midas touch that made even mediocre players seem like gifted actors. With the exception of artistes like Utpal Dutt and Victor Banerjee, we don’t have many who held their own in Hindi movies. And hard as they might try, they can’t blame the formulaic, larger than life Bollywood norm for the dilution. A good actor is supposed to make any role as convincing as possible. No wonder, Ray cast several Bombay artistes like Amjad Khan, Sanjeev kumar, Leela Mishra and David for their brilliant performances in mainstream Hindi films. Contrary to popular perception, Ray was appreciative of many redeeming features of Hindi cinema including its factory-like but inventive approach to musical compositions.

Despite knowing Ray from close quarters, Robinson refrains from making any exclusive claims that often colour the pages of any archetypal biography. His observations stem from genuine wonderment, reassuringly free of the imposing, half-baked pronouncements in the guise of analysis. We owe it to Robinson for introducing us to some of Ray’s close friends and acquaintances like the multi-faceted linguist David McCutchion, eccentric uncle Choto kaka, grand uncle and story teller Dhondadu, nonconformist Presidency College professor Humphry House, India’s bicycle pioneer and perfumer H. Bose, art historian Prithwish Neogy and polymath Kamal Kumar Majumdar, all mavericks in their own right.

The chapter titled ‘Inner Eye’ and the section ‘Legacy of Satyajit Ray’ of the concluding part forms the crux of Robinson’s heartfelt tribute to Ray. As he succinctly puts it "Satyajit Ray and his films, especially his very last films, would remind us of the wholeness and sanctity of the individual, and offer us intimations, if we cared to tune ourselves to him, of a mysterious unity behind the mysterious world." Robinson prophetically cautioned us some time back "In the future, there is a definite risk that Ray’s work, except for the Apu trilogy, will become trapped in an eddy by the very breadth and uniqueness of its creator’s range of eastern and western references: neither in the cultural mainstream like Kurosawa’s films, nor in the cultic backwaters like Ritwik Ghatak’s."

It’s definitely our collective responsibility to rescue the master from the eddy of our obliviousness and short-sightedness and Robinson serves as our best guiding light in this endeavour. What more can one ask from a sensitive biographer?

Micromax Informatics: From Micro to Maximum

(Recalling a dated piece on the request of a few readers who follow my India Infoline thought pieces)

Sudhir Raikar, IIFL | Mumbai | January 06, 201509:32 IST

Having marked its debut as a fringe player in a seller’s market dominated by the big fish, Micromax is today an undeniable force to reckon with, that too in a demanding and daunting smartphone bazaar of multiple choices. The news of the proposed IPO of this top-rung player represents a success story of several fertile breakthroughs rolled into one mobile phenomenon.

When analysts and media experts get busy scripting your evolution as they see it, you know you have arrived. Micromax knows that pretty well. Till date, many success factors have been attributed to the Micromax success story – some have seen it as a joyride on the wheels of a smart China-made arbitrage, others point out the company’s knack of reading the Indian customer’s mind and there are many who single out the company’s penchant for pocket-friendly innovation.

Indeed, all these elements have fuelled the company’s meteoric rise in the mobile space but the real engine of its success has been its insatiable appetite for calculated risk. After all, the market was open to other domestic players like Micromax with the same set of opportunities and possibilities beckoning them. It’s only the ingredient of risk, almost synonymous with innovation, which makes the Micromax evolution truly stand out - gutsy and gusty in the same breath.

Talk of smartphones, tablets, LED TVs or data cards, not many makers can match the Micromax acumen when it comes to fixing value and price exactly in line with the customer’s aspiration. Not many founders would have the time, inclination or the motivation to personally visit retail stores to gauge ‘live’ customer feedback. Not many strategists would be as keen to make the everyday needs of customers central to their R & D plans. Not many spenders would risk the gamble of big ticket celebrity endorsements to lure target markets, a move that could well have boomeranged with disastrous financial consequences.

No wonder, the likes of Sequoia Capital and Sandstone Capital chose to back the then non-entity proposition with their minority stakes. No wonder, Micromax made quick inroads into the rustic Indian marketspace with a rooted,matter-of-fact proposition like the 30-day battery backup. No wonder, Micromax was the first player to introduce dual SIM phones leaving the Nokias and the Samsungs with a trail, easy to emulate in design but impossible to match in price. No wonder, the company launched novel factory-packaged products with unfailing regularity and also distributed them with commensurate alacrity across the length and breadth of the country.

It would be interesting to see how the public issue, following a shelved attempt to tap the capital markets in 2011, shapes the company’s blueprinted cause for the future. As per media bytes, half of the proceeds are likely to fund a handset manufacturing plant in south India, while the rest would be used for global acquisitions and brand promotion.

Clearly, the road ahead would result in a bumpy ride. Consumers, given the sheer abundance of choice, have today become fussier about features and edgy about their post purchase ‘holding’ periods. China is no longer an arbitrage haven that it used to be what with news of steadily rising wages that would necessarily dilute the cost-effective manufacturing advantage. Competing brands like Xiaomi, Gioni and Motorola are likely to get more aggressive in their counter-strategies that could make a dent into the Micromax prospects. Besides, there’re a host of domestic players luring budget-conscious buyers with equally attractive price tags.

Given its exceptionally striking voyage till date, it’s highly unlikely that Micromax would be caught napping. Already, it is employing an assorted approach to the supply-side dynamic – using China as a selective manufacturing base on one end and running indigenous production lines on the other. And the chi of unquenchable innovation is still intact.

A strong case in point is the new online initiative Yu Televentures that seeks to tap the tech-hungry youth brigade,banking on the customization and performance value proposition of Android’s Cyanogen OS, confronting the Chinese OnePlus in the process. The latter is pinning its hopes on the Android Lollipop OS after a bitter last minute divorce with Cyanogen consequent to the Micromax-Cyanogen marriage. That Yu Televentures doesn’t mention the Micromax brand either on the product docket or literature could well be the company’s ploy to get rid of the ‘mass market’ tag that is often deemed sub-standard, more by its competitors than buyers.

Saturday, September 24, 2016

Project for the speechless, which leaves you speechless!

Sudhir Raikar, IIFL | Mumbai | April 25, 201609:51 IST

VocaliD aptly sums up its enduring value prop on its website: ‘The voice company that is bringing speaking machines to life.’ This initiative has indeed taken man- machine collaboration to another level.

Belmont-based VocaliD is not your everyday startup. Brainchild of 43-year old speech scientist Rupal Patel, it’s a project aimed at designing personalized synthetic voices to help people with severe speech impairments speak in a voice that suits their body and persona. In what’s a telling outcome of Patel’s painstaking collaboration with Dr. Tim Bunnell of Nemours Al Dupont Hospital for Children, VoacliD has developed algorithms to build unique voices for people who are forced to rely on computer aided-speech in the aftermath of a stroke, Parkinson’s Disease, cerebral palsy or other serious impediments.

A BS from the University of Calgary and Masters and PhD from the University of Toronto, Patel’s experience spans over 15 years of clinical and research experience in assistive technology. She has authored over 50 peer- reviewed journal articles and several hundred conference presentations in the areas of speech motor control and assistive communication technology and has raised $5M+ in research funding from federal agencies and foundations.

She holds appointments in the Harvard/MIT Speech and Hearing Biosciences and Technology program, The Department of Psychiatry at University of Massachusetts, and Haskins Laboratory at Yale University. A tenured Professor at Northeastern University in the College of Computer and Information Science, she has founded an interdisciplinary laboratory at the Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders. Besides Patel, the VocaliD team ( comprises some of the best brains – scientists, engineers and entrepreneurs - all committed champions.

It was a young woman called Samantha who unknowingly made Patel’s mission even more purposeful in serving the larger cause of its beneficiaries. The team realized midway - in the course of the team’s efforts to create a perfectly scientific voice for her - that Samantha didn’t want a perfect voice; she wanted ‘her’ voice back. This lent momentum to VocaliD’s experiments to iteratively improve techniques, which rely on combining the recipient’s vocal identity features with the speech clarity features of a matched voice donor. Before VocaliD’s innovation, a synthetic voice invariably meant a generic computerized voice, the most popular example being Stephen Hawking, who uses a synthesiser called DECtalk.

The VocaliD team is focused on raising funds for a unique Human Voicebank Initiative that seeks to build the infrastructure to gather and store all donor voices. The goal is to collect one million voice samples by 2020 to create the world’s largest voice repository. This corpus would help VocaliD generate unique vocal identities for hundreds of recipients through matching donors.

The Human Voicebank Initiative is indeed herculean as the firm’s Lab model cannot not be scaled to ensure mass reach.

Voice donors need to visit either Patel’s or Dr. Bunnell’s labs to record three hours of speech (around 3,200 sentences) in a professional sound studio. The patient “utterances” – sounds that they are able to produce – provide clues to the original speech texture, prior to the impediment. Surrogates of the same gender and age group are then made to read from classic books. The two voices are blended together to create a high-quality matching voice using a tool called ModelTalker. It takes at least 800 sentences to create a usable voice, and around 3000 to make it sound natural, to the extent possible. The VocaliD wizards can reverse engineer a voice with just three seconds of sound, using algorithms to find a matched speaker within the Voicebank and blend the vocal DNA with their recordings. The result is a personalized digital voice that preserves the match's clarity, and conveys the beneficiary’s unique vocal identity.

The lab-based arrangement limits the possibility of making a real difference for the hundreds of people waiting for voices and for the even larger populace who may want voices in the future. Given the fact that beneficiaries are not limited to a single age group or backgrounds, the group of donors need to be diverse in the true sense of the word.

VocaliD has since broad-based its model through software that can run on tablets and mobile phones that are equipped with high-quality microphones, indeed god sent for the given purpose. Gaming is another option the startup is working on to make communication engaging for children as also for those who may lack the technical awareness to learn about the project in DIY mode.

VocaliD aptly sums up its enduring value prop on its website: ‘The voice company that is bringing speaking machines to life.’ This initiative has indeed helped man and machine collaboration move up the value chain. Needless to say, mass scale public participation will help the team achieve its 2020 mission, may be even surpass it. The VocaliD voicebanking platform currently has over 11,000 members from over 110 countries. You can help both these figures swell phenomenally. Visit to find out more.

Picture credit:

Wednesday, September 21, 2016

Operation Theatre: The Life and Times of Dr. Subhash Munje

Dr. Subhash Munje, renowned surgeon and stanch humanitarian, firmly believed in sharing his life stories to the tee. Insight or indecision, accomplishment or astonishment, delight or disappointment; he was keen to lay open his mixed bag of experiences for public dissection. A film on his life will go a long way in restoring the credibility of the medical profession in the guiding light of Dr. Munje’s example.

Dr. Munje’s memoir “Behind the Mask”, an honest and humorous account of his umpteen surgical trials and triumphs in the course of his momentous but largely unsung career – a great window into the mind of a sensitive surgeon who breathes the patient’s sigh of relief every time his treatment works and feels deeply wounded each time he’s unable to succeed.

Dr. Munje narrates such diverse tales – real-life stories of human courage and conviction, frailties and failures, insecurities and inhibitions – that both enrich and endanger the medical profession in copious ways.

Dr. Munje began his career at age 26, as the youngest civil surgeon of Alibaug near Mumbai. This place in the 60-70 decade was bereft of electricity to safeguard the world’s purest magnetic observatory situated in this sleepy beach town. Unfortunately, the global distinction came at the cost of the general public welfare and community development as the town was left groping in the dark while most of its neighboring regions basked in the glory of lights.

So, Dr. Munje had to operate aided by his hunting light in a deprived district hospital equipped with 12 beds and only two medical officers. Needless to say, he played multiple roles in catering to diverse situations – surgeon, physician, obstetrician, gynecologist, pediatrician, ophthalmologist and even psychiatrist. Had Dr. Munje been in the US, his chronicles would have traveled far and wide as glittering case studies of innovation amidst abject deprivation but here he was in far-flung Alibaug, far-away from the mainstream, oblivious from the glamour of sprawling labs and spacious hospitals and yet, neck deep in the flowing stream of every-day strife that he took by its horns. His manifold trials and tribulations would make the best of surgeons gasp for breath. Let’s take a look at a few:

• The insecure outgoing Civil Surgeon of Alibaug, the one preceding him, had the impudence to mislead unsuspecting patients with a ridiculous assertion (Dr. Munje is only an MS, I am an MBBS) and worse, once he recklessly went ahead with the draining of an abscess only to please his bloated ego. The abscess was a rare case of aneurysm of the Aorta and he was forewarned by Dr. Munje against the drain for the potential blood deluge it would cause (which did happen in full force)
• Dr. Munje successfully managed a surgery of acute appendicitis on a furiously swaying makeshift operating table. Reason? The patient was a notorious sea pirate and the surgery happened at gun point in a rocking boat floating in the middle of the sea.
• On one occasion, he faced a queer request, a tempting surgical challenge, but one he downright refused for ethical reasons. The request was to make yet another invisible “pocket” in the inside of a person’s thighs to help smuggle diamonds. Dr. Munje however was all praise for the dexterity of the anonymous surgeon who had made the first pocket leaving only a thin 1-inch scar that invariably escaped the custom guys’ attention. Just because the surgeon was no more, the designer task had been “referred” to Dr. Munje.
• Guided by his impressive track record of quite a few thoracotomies in the district hospital, the incredible doctor performed a phenomenal surgery for the widening of a narrow heart valve on a complex case of Mitral Stenosis, on a patient with Situs Inversus (major visceral organs mirrored from their normal position). In hindsight, he admits it was a risky proposition at a small place like Alibaug. This feat won the admiration of India’s best known cardiologist who was vacationing in Alibaug at the same time. He was intrigued by the blood packs in his Alibaug-bound motor launch and decided to discreetly observe the “village surgeon” in action. Thrilled with what he saw, he offered Dr. Munje a lifetime opportunity to join his privileged team in Mumbai. No doubt, Dr. Munje would have scaled new heights with specialized training in cardiovascular surgery but he decided to stay put in Alibaug. The glorious sense of achievement amidst all the adversity was more precious than any professional recognition.
• Once he travelled all the way to Murud fighting rain and thunderstorm to attend to a bleeding pregnancy crisis but even before he could go about his job, the patient expired. For the sake of an old woman visibly frantic about the child in the womb, he decided to examine the dead body and actually felt a foetal movement. In a miraculous development, he delivered a badly asphyxiated but revivable child through a postmortem cesarean – a girl child after seven boys – who was named after the mother and grew up into a healthy woman and mother of three children herself.
• In one chapter titled “A dose of his own medicine” he recounts his own horrifying first-hand experience of awareness in anesthesia, having woken up in the midst of a routine operation to find him paralyzed but yet aware of every single surgical procedure from incision to retraction to dissection. It was only a miracle that he survived that near-death experience – akin to a blaze of spiritual enlightenment.
There are so many such instances – unbelievable but true - but the most astonishing concern a drunken ward boy called Mr. Sandey who regularly helped the doctor with such ingenious “Eureka” remedies that would find no mention in medical journals but they worked wonders when all medical possibilities had come to a screeching halt.

Here’s the account of one such Sandey solution:

A seven-month pregnant woman was attacked by a wayward bull causing a goring abdomen injury. The wound had perforated the abdominal wall exposing not only the intestinal loop and the protective abdominal fat (called omentum) but also the uterus which clearly showed the baby’s protruding forearm. Dr. Munje successfully opened the abdomen and fixed all injuries save for the baby’s hand. Even as desperate thoughts like amputation or a forced delivery crossed the doctor’s mind, our Mr. Sandey suggested a mild shock with a red hot needle. The suggestion seemed outrageous but Dr. Munje decided to pursue it. Heating an injection needle on a burning spirit swab, he placed it on the hand – and wonder of wonders, the child instinctively pulled its hand back. The birth two months later was perfectly normal and more important the hand had no tell-tale signs of the pre-birth mishap. And Dr. Munje had no qualms in unconditionally accepting Sanday’s genius as also proclaiming him as his most trusted advisor. Quick to express gratitude wherever it was due, he never sought attention or did his own promotion. Else, his world record of performing as many as 400 Tubal Ligations in a small village called Ainpur (that found mention in the London Times) could have easily entered the Guinness Book of World Records.

In the concluding chapter, Dr. Munje reminds us of Hippocrates, father of medicine, who remarked “I would like to know what sort of person has the disease rather than what sort of disease the person has”.

In the pursuit of medical advancement like genetic engineering, heart and kidney transplants, coronary bypasses and laser angioplasties, Dr. Munje laments, we have lost track of the human mind. Corporate entities have turned modalities like C T Scan, MRI, Sonography and nuclear studies into a profitable business. Doctors, he reflects, don’t feel the need to strike conversation with the patient any more. The diagnostic tools, which are only for the sake of confirming diagnosis, dictate the treatment instead.

In one instance, a patient was advised surgery for suspected cancer following a CT Scan which revealed a doubtful shadow in one of the nasal sinuses. Overcome with grief and stress, the patient had lost considerable weight which was linked back to the suspected cancer. When Dr. Munje examined him, he found the patient’s uncontrollable diabetes pointing towards diabetic neuropathy. The patient was taken into confidence and treated for diabetes. He had a full recovery in good time.

Despite his single-handed humanitarian work in remote areas, Dr. Munje was never adequately recognized by the government. Worse, he was repeatedly victimized and cornered by the powers-that-be – by peers and adversaries alike. Thanks to the supremacy of his conviction, he emerged unscathed every single time. And amidst all the strife, he never lost his zest for life. A wildlife enthusiast, he was fond of pets and as the pages of the book reveal, lover of poetry and shayari too. His striking sense of humour makes him a P L Deshpande among surgeons. He narrates many jokes and anecdotes in the book including this one popular in medical circles on the needless but rampant ordeals like Appendectomy: “A pretty nurse was called Appendix. Why? Because every surgeon wanted to take her out”

Whether at Alibaug or later at Thane, the doctor continued his practice largely on the goodwill he generated from his good work. Donations poured in from grateful patients but the doctor ensured they were always in kind – whether x-ray machines, refrigerators, cots, lockers, stretchers or even linen. In this context, Dr. Munje narrates one telling incident which reflects the sorry governmental practices in the name of rules and regulations. At some juncture, he had some of the worn-out instruments replaced with genuine stainless steel ones to sustain the hard water and sea shore proximity of Alibaug. Since the purchase exceeded the Government rate contract, he was questioned for the “exorbitant” expenditure. (He was never congratulated for the good work) Dr. Munje silenced the nuisance makers with some irrefutable logic “If you were to be operated yourself, which instrument would you prefer?” Obviously, there was no answer from the other side.

Dr. Munje’s will and skill in establishing a candid dialogue with his patients as also his unwavering commitment to the larger cause of medicine is a life lesson particularly for those medical professionals who choose to play safe at the cost of human life, and who treat their fraternity as nothing more than an elite club of the chosen few, consciously placed way above the reach and comprehension of the common people.

To put his profession in perspective in his own words “Surgery is a performing art, just like music, dance and stagecraft. But there are no retakes or replays. And as much an art, it’s a science and sacrament too.”

Tuesday, September 20, 2016

Only Alter, No Ego!

Reproducing a dated piece on actor Tom Alter on the demand of a few readers, obviously Alter fans! I don't agree with much of what Tom believes but it was great interacting with him. Anyone who has worked with the one and only Ray is a celebrity for me!

The launch of the 22nd issue of the “Gallarie” Magazine at the Crossword bookstore, Kemp’s Corner was blessed with a munificent tinge of colour, thanks to the gracious presence of actor Tom Alter. Sporting a new crew cut-like haircut and scouting for space and seat in the cozy Crossword store, he shared his thoughts with Sudhir Raikar on issues close to his heart.

“I am very happy with my place in the Hindi film industry” he begins, dismissing the pet media claim that Bollywood typecast him in Gora Sahib roles.

“I am disturbed by this muddled media notion that defies both statistic and sentiment. “In the 200-odd films that I have worked in, only 10 have cast me as “The Englishman” baddie, of which only one film called Amma has me speaking broken Hindi – Bollywood’s popular Angrez dialect. Sheer numbers tell the story. Don’t they?”

Does that mean he’s content with his screen track record? “Absolutely. The Ray classic Shataranj ke Khiladi (as Captain Weston) and Ketan Mehta’s Sardar (as Lord Mountbatten) rank very high on the artistic front, but I loved my roles in most of my films - Kranti, Sultanat, Raam Teri Ganga Maili, Veer Savarkar and Parinda, to name a few”

Very few know that Tom starred as the Leading man opposite actress Abha Dulia in Chameli Memsaab – a film that did exceptionally well outside Mumbai and other major metros. Tom is happy with his tryst with the small screen as well “I loved Junoon – playing Keshav Kalsi was undoubtedly one of the highpoints of my career”

And how does he rate the current crop of artistes and films? “Well, they boast of technical finesse but the soul is missing. Corporatization has taken its toll – when the film becomes a product, art takes a back seat” he contends.

“When was the last time we saw Yash Chopra create a movie amidst the flurry of glossy products? Even Subash Ghai has gone the corporate way. The film industry is missing the adventure of film making – I personally miss the big and small banners of yesteryears which unfurled conviction ahead of commerce.”

He is hopeful though. “People Iike Vidhu Vinod Chopra have held fort. I liked the way Vishal Bharadwaj has gone about his directorial avatar – on his own accord. And Rajit Kapur is doing great work. This guy has substance and style.” Alter played a doctor in Kapur’s inspired but innovative “Bheja Fry”

On recent media reports about his directorial plans, he sets the record straight again “This again is a media invention. I aspire to direct one day for sure, but nothing’s lined up as yet. I have the scripts ready for the film, not the finances. I keep my fingers crossed”

Any discussion with Tom can’t be complete without cricket. Coincidently, in the film Dressing Room, Tom played a cricket coach.

“The IPL has taken the charm away. The glamour and the cut throat competition spell bad news for test cricket in particular, as also cricketers like Kumble, Dravid, Ganguly and Laxman. You get slotted before you perform, nothing can be more depressing.”

“In a way, cricket and Hindi films sail in the same boat. Both are the victims of corporatization. If test cricket is a Guru Dutt film, the ultra-limited versions are like mediocre TV serials” he sighs with a smile.

The interactive panel at Crossword saw “Gallarie” editor Bina Sarkar Ellias discuss the relevance of religion in modern times with four eminent guest speakers – gifted script writer and lyricist Javed Akhtar, academician Zeenat Shaukat Ali, poet, painter and playwright Gieve Patel and of course prolific actor Tom Alter.

Javed Akthar spoke his heart out in his inimitable animated discourse, precisely why he stuck the right chord with the audience. Rephrasing the theme as ‘Should religion be relevant today?’ he uncovered the absurdity of the term “religious tolerance” - attacking the tyrannical quality of any religious sect that leaves no room for vocal introspection or reason. But his thought bogey ran full steam on devoted leftist tracks, failing to acknowledge faith as a bigger and larger entity, distinct from beliefs and myths.

While Ms. Ali’s discourse was predictably academic and quotation-heavy, Gieve Patel was restrained and candid in his short communiqué. Tom’s extempore was easily the highlight of the show. The cheerful actor spoke the least, smiled the most and was upbeat, albeit in his laid-back manner. His emotional address ended with an appeal recommending “Khuda ke Liye”- a commendable Pakistan production that portrays religion in the right perspective. He expressed doubts over the possibility of a similar re-examination in India of the Hindu or Christian faith, coming with the same unflinching courage and conviction.
Devoid of the poise of a celebrity speaker, he happened to be on the dais but did not belong there – his dignity was matched in equal measure by the presence of ace director Shyam Benegal, a picture of quiet introspection among the listeners.
The bulk of the audience, not surprisingly, wore elitist garbs adorned with cerebral embroidery. Most of the questions that followed the panel discussion seemed like vehicles to demonstrate the speaker’s intellectual wares. But unlike the bookshop stuff – the books, the DVDs and the coffee – they came free!

पीले पन्नो वाली किताब

पीले पन्नो वाली एक किताब में
कई दिलकश अफ़साने दर्ज है
दिल के सबसे निचले कोने में
जिनका गुमनाम आदाब अर्ज है

बीच के मोटे दस्तावेजो में कैद
बेशुमार फैसलों की ख्वाइश है
और सबसे ऊपर की डायरी में
शिकायतों की लम्बी नुमाइश है

ख्वाइशों और नुमाईशो का बोझ
सर से हटने की देर है
पीले पन्नो के अफ़साने
यादगार तराने बन जायेंगे
दिल से जुबा पर आकर
महफ़िलो के नए दौर सजायेंगे

© सुधीर रायकर
रात के पिछले पहर

Monday, September 19, 2016

Tailor-made activist: A K Hangal (1917-2012)

For someone who came to India from across the border as a humble tailor in search of a livelihood, he was tailor-made for social activism – subtle in force, significant in impact. His loss is undoubtedly irreparable, both for India and Pakistan.

With Avtaar Kishan Hangal’s demise, we have lost a rare artiste whose leftist conviction knew no bounds. Whether public arena, theatre dais or the silver screen, he remained an eternal activist till the very end. For someone who made his film debut at age 50, cinemascope success had different connotations – more a measure of selfless contentment than a medium of celebrity status.

But the late arrival in no way proved a constraint for his inherent creativity that came in full measure; whatever the role he portrayed on the big screen. And fortunately, he was blessed with the patronage of some of the best filmmakers of his time who made such memorable films like Teesri Kasam, Garm Hawa, Saat Hindustani, Mere Apne, Anubhav, Namak Haram, Balika Badhu, Alaap, Kora Kagaz, Aandhi and Tapasya.

If some of his performances in mainstream movies smacked of monotony, it was only the Bollywood obsession with stereotypes to blame, invariably roping him in as a doting father or caring guardian in film after film. But whenever the opportunity presented, trivial or otherwise, he made the most of it, leaving behind some of the most enchanting screen moments for posterity – whether the sprightly, British bred oldie of Shoukeen, hen-pecked husband of Chitchor, upright school teacher of Dewaar, feuding elder brother of Bawarchi, small-time crook in Manzil or even the ageing clerk of Arjun, he poured his heart out in every portrayal. And despite his deep theatre roots, his performance was never theatrical. No wonder, doyen Ritwik Ghatak called him India’s best character actor.

But such is the media fixation (more ridicule, less veneration in the obsession) with his Imam Saab in the epic film Sholay that the rest of his filmography does not even count. Not even his momentous theatre career inspired by leftist ideology.But Hangal Saab had little time for any regret or resentment in life. Whether the late film debut, delayed Padmabhushan, string of personal tragedies or the ensuing financial ruin – he took it all in his stride and yet remained an eternal optimist dreaming of a secular nation that will someday reinstate the dwindling public faith in Marxist principles.

In one of his last interviews, his innermost feelings came neatly wrapped in a philosophical retort “Zingadi se koi shikayat nahi, Shayad zindagi ko mujhse ho” (I hold no grudges against life, maybe life bears a few against me) For someone who came to India from across the border as a humble tailor in search of a livelihood, he was tailor-made for social activism – subtle in force, significant in impact. His loss is undoubtedly irreparable, both for India and Pakistan.

Thursday, September 01, 2016

Hamara Farooq (1948 – 2013)

Unlike the conceited mainstream stars of Bollywood and the narcissist celebrities of parallel cinema, Farooq Sheikh represented the voice of India’s common people from classes and masses alike. Sudhir Raikar pays tribute to the selfless crusader.

Courtesy Sudhir Raikar,

Farooq Sheikh’s charisma defied every convention and belied every expectation. For a born Zamindar, he was unmistakably democratic in his vision and mission. A lawyer by qualification, he was never ever seen advocating his own case. A celebrity with mass appeal, he hardly ever hogged the limelight. Given these unassuming traits, he never received the kind of adulation which even an Amol Palekar bagged in unduly good measure. Not that he aspired for it for he was perfectly happy with his select strides that effortlessly stood out, just like his acting, amidst a largely boisterous galaxy of film stars clamouring for attention and admiration.

As an actor, he was undoubtedly one of our very best. But even in the art circuit, he played second fiddle (along with other great actors like Pankaj Kapoor) to Naseeruddin Shah and Om Puri, the darling duo of offbeat makers during the 70s and 80s. But he carved a niche even in the constricted space offered to him. Take any role of his and you would invariably find it exactly in line with the psyche of the given character – whether the aspiring comrade of Garm Hawa, pensive cabbie of Gaman, flirtatious youth of Shataranj Ke Khiladi, congenial conman of Katha or the romantic Nawab of Umrao Jaan.

Comedy or tragedy, mainstream cinema or art film, leading man or character artiste, big banner production or small budget film, silver screen, small screen or stage, serials or reality shows, he etched his inimitable charm across every genre and media. For the majority however, he was best known for his light-hearted films with co-artiste Deepti Naval. And of course, the play Tumhari Amrita with Shabana Azmi remains one of his most notable success stories.

Thanks to his selective approach, his tryst with commercial cinema was intermittent but remarkable even in the middling zone. Whether as the hero in Yash Chopra’s endearing Noorie, Big Bachchan’s friend in the hugely forgettable Toofan or Ranbir Kapoor’s dad in the recent Yeh Jawaani Hai Deewani, the shelf life of Sheikh’s contribution enjoyed more longevity than the films themselves in most cases.

The real tribute to Farooq Sheikh should come in the form of introspection: Why should a gifted artiste, having made an unforgettable debut, be denied commensurate opportunities to help unleash his extraordinary talent? Surely, we as makers and viewers are collectively responsible for relegating genuine actors to become petty role players. And some of Sheikh’s celebrated peers from the offbeat cinema can take a cue from his trademark humility and tranquility. If they do so, they will immediately refrain from blatantly advertising their activism and non-conformism. It will save them the consequential embarrassment of quitting films every second day only to appear in another mindless film the very third day.

Monday, August 22, 2016

The Outstanding Insider

Sudhir Raikar, IIFL | Mumbai | August 22, 2016 12:02 IST

Urjit Patel’s value prop spells a unique blend of knowledge and experience from splendid stints across spheres – academia to industry, government to corporate, IMF to RBI –that augurs well for India’s developmental agenda going forward.


The government has shown admirable restraint in keeping prudence above populism and business above politics with the appointment of Dr. Urjit Patel who brings proven credentials, dignified poise and steely resolve, all rolled into one grand stimulus package for the country. The investment community – whether at home or abroad – should cheer the appointment of a competent thought leader and practitioner who has been the cynosure of all eyes across ruling governments. His list of admirers includes names like Dr. Manmohan Sigh, PM Narendra Modi, Mukesh Ambani and Deepak Parekh – which give a fair idea of his widespread appeal. From designing IDFC blueprint to steering the Reliance energy mission, from aiding the GSPC governance to influencing the privatization of power distribution, he believes in ‘doing’ as much as in ‘knowing’, no wonder, his Yale and Oxford degrees have transcended academic boundaries, and his numerous thought papers are packed with actionable insights – incisive takes on a host of issues including Indian macroeconomics, financial intermediation, public finance, international trade and even the economics of climate change.

The harbinger of flexible inflation targeting in India, Dr. Patel has been working full steam even before assuming office as Mint Street’s top guy. That there would be no time lost in swinging into needful action is perhaps the most reassuring factor from the market perspective. In a world of perpetual uncertainty, flexible inflation targeting could well prove to be the perfect antidote for addressing the multi-hued challenges that hugely impact the larger twin cause of ensuring price stability and economic welfare. It remains to be seen how the new Governor tackles the key challenges in the path of flexible targeting including the supply-side sensitivity of CPI inflation, given the limited control of monetary policy over erratic variables like food and fuel prices. More importantly, the efficacy of his policy will hinge on credible support from the government in the form of prudent fiscal management. Patel is well known for his categorical stance, on the criticality of inflation control to steady growth and that of fiscal consolidation to achieving inflation targets.

Diffusing the NPA time bomb will be another top priority for Patel, so also steering the Monetary Policy Committee from thought towards action. That he has earlier advised the government on diverse matters including debt market management, banking & pension fund reforms, real exchange rate targeting and forex market progression gives an idea of his phenomenal range of expertise.

Patel’s appointment is beyond doubt one of Modi Government’s most momentous decisions. That media is unlikely to confer Patel with rock-star status is hardly an issue, given his proven and purposeful track record, as rock-solid as his illustrious predecessor's. Knee-jerk market response including impact on equity prices, bond yields and rupee movements notwithstanding, there’s no denying the fact that we have an outstanding insider in charge of the apex bank who has allowed us the luxury of a fresh ‘Low inflation, High Growth’ dream. We wish the new Guv every success in his monumental mission.